Recommendation: EPA should expand its environmental indicators to address economic and social issues in collaboration with other federal agencies to address economic and social issues, and consider adopting them and developing appropriate metrics to inform sustainability considerations for state and local actors. 1993. 34 Sustainable Design Techniques posted by John Spacey, January 24, 2016 updated on March 11, 2017. The suite of tools should include dynamic analysis that analyzes the consequences of alternative options through time (intergenerational component). The range of options and the associated social (including health), environmental, and economic impacts for each option would be presented along with any trade-off analyses that may have been undertaken. The principles, practices and available tools and techniques of sustainability management relevant to the industry context include the following; Principles of sustainability: It involves integrity of three major components that are: economy, society and the environment. As is the case with alternatives analysis under NEPA, options in a sustainability assessment allow the decision maker to understand different ways of taking a particular action and thus provide the decision maker with more choices to reduce adverse impacts. 4.2. Reforming Regulatory Impact Analysis. EPA made early use of economic-incentive approaches that later found application in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, which codified the use of emission offsets to reduce acid-deposition precursors, such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, at a small fraction of the previously estimated cost. 2009. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. The screening approach would first determine whether to undertake the Sustainability Assessment and Management approach for any particular program, policy, or project. Still, integrated assessment models will often be needed to understand the relationships among the social, environmental, and economic pillars of sustainability in the context of a particular decision. A formal sustainability analysis could also take an extended time period to complete. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 3 Executive Order 13514, titled Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, sets sustainability goals for Federal agencies, including the need for improvements in environmental, energy and economic performance. Yet, if biofuel expansion causes conversion of forests, wetlands, or native grasslands to croplands, the carbon debt from land-use change can take decades to centuries to repay (Fargione et al. Collectively, the suite of tools should have the ability to analyze present and future consequences of alternative decision options on the full range of social, environmental, and economic indicators. Sustainability indicators differ from those developed to measure a specific outcome of a program, such as an air quality parameter, as they must be able to capture information across multiple factors. Data availability will, in part, determine the necessary tool. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. van Rooijen, N. Victor, and Z. Dadi. Cronbach, L.J. Proc. 1999, No. (Recommendation 7e), Constructing a Research and Evaluation Template for Sustainable Cities, The historic demographic transition that is under way has already meant that a majority of the US and world population lives in cities. Responsible leadership and corporate social responsibility: Metrics for sustainable performance. NB: Ballantine (CitiesToday, Oct 2014) and Monnen & Clark (2013) list more than 150 benchmarking tools for sustainable cities metrics, e.g., Corporate Knights, Siemens Green City Index, AT Kearney’s Global … Early on, the NRC (1983) recognized that risk assessments could not always be quantitative, and most recently, the NRC (2009) emphasized the need for tools for fuller characterizations of cumulative risks, including qualitative ones, that adequately account for the full range of chemical and other stressors, particularly for environmental justice contexts. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Turner, A.D. Jones, M. O’Hare, and D.M. Statistics. Integrat-. 2006. This process of dialogue has reached the point where they are developing common solutions and advocating similar agendas for resolving global, regional, national, and local issues. On their way towards assuring growth and long-term sustainability, many modern small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) from the European Union have set building a stronger brand as one of their primary goals. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office [online]. EPA’s history contains many examples of its application of convening authority, including voluntary initiatives with companies to report reductions of high-priority toxic releases, acquisition of data from testing of high-production-volume chemicals, development of test methods for identifying endocrine-disruption potential, and conducting formal regulatory negotiations as a precursor to formal rulemaking on such issues as residential wood heaters, equipment leaks from chemical processes, and cleaner fuel development. The authors noted that to better inform policy, “scenarios must move beyond illustrating the potential impacts of global change on biodiversity toward more integrated approaches that account for the feedbacks that link environmental drivers, biodiversity, ecosystems services, and socioeconomic dynamics” (Pereira et al. 2009. 2011). Transitioning from a “pollution source” to a “value chain” unit of problem formulation and analysis will provide EPA with important insights into how pollution is created and distributed. The quick scan process can determine whether the project is sufficiently large to establish a presumption of possible impacts on one or more pillars of sustainability, to determine the range and magnitude of potential impacts, and to identify which pillars will have large. Recommendation 7.3: EPA should develop an integrated sustainability and risk-assessment–risk-management approach for decision-makers. In the hazard identification step a determination is made about the type of effects potentially caused by the environmental exposure. The committee explicitly recommends that EPA develop a sustainability screening approach. EPA-300-R-06-002. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Mitchell, D. 2008. Policy Brief Paper based on the Conclusion of the SUTRA Seminar on Sustainability Impact Assessment, March 26-27, 2003, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium [online]. OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). The agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an international resource for business, government, and the public to gain access to information on individual chemical profiles as a basis for regulatory policy decisions, discussions of community risks, and risk-management decisions taken by individual companies and consumers. Available: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf [accessed May 2, 2011]. Pp. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC [online]. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 19, 2011]. In preparation for EPA’s next report on the environment, a task force has begun work to identify indicators of sustainability and associated metrics. Open process: Proposed compromises and trade-offs must be addressed and justified through processes that include open and effective involvement of all stakeholders. Sustainable Manufacturing Curriculum: Greening the Future by Educating Tomorrow's Workforce—As sustainable manufacturing takes hold across the country, the demand for employees who are trained to identify opportunities for improving process efficiencies and preventing environmental wastes will explode. Recognizing the importance of sustainability to its work, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working to create programs and applications in a variety of areas to better incorporate sustainability into decision-making at the agency. This evaluation can be assisted by identifying additional data to better characterize system linkages and responses in indicators other than those that are used to assess goals. IAPA 24(3):170-182. • Expanding the scope of problem formulation to include not only point and area sources that directly emit or contribute to pollution generation but energy and material flows throughout a value chain of activities that ultimately generate pollution further downstream. ETIS is a tool aimed to improve the sustainable management of destinations through a set of indicators, based on the direct involvement of public and private stakeholders. NRC. Recommendation 7.1: As EPA continues to evaluate and update its current decision-making tools and frameworks, it should strive to use sustainability concepts as an integrating principle for its strategic plan and implementation of its program responsibilities. It would be impractical and unworkable to make each of these types of decisions using the formalized Sustainability Assessment and Management approach. Convening for Collaboration for System-Level Solutions. EPA. 1998a. Final Guidance for Incorporating Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA’s NEPA Compliance Analyses. Risk Assessment Forum., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http://www.agro-montpellier.fr/sustra/publications/policy_briefs/policy-brief-sia-eng.pdf [accessed June 9, 2011]. In that respect, EPA’s FY 2014–2018 strategic plan mirrors those discontinuous relationships, and it is unclear how the decision making frameworks support each other in executing the agency’s mission. RFA (Renewable Fuels Association). Recommendation: The agency should develop a tiered formalized process, with guidelines, for undertaking the Sustainability Assessment and Management approach to maximize benefits across the three pillars and to ensure further intergenerational social, environmental, and economic benefits that address environmental justice. Risk assessment is a tool widely used for characterizing the adverse human health and ecologic effects of exposures. Environmental impact assessment tends to focus primarily on the projected environmental effects of a particular action and alternatives to that action. Where relevant, these indicators should allow for international comparisons and the rapid adoption and adaptation of best practices from other countries responding to the challenges of sustainability. 2009. 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